Foot Problems

Skin Problems

Worried about skin problem? Get skin care treatment at Foot Pain Management and information to make your skin best.


Foot Allergies

There are two kinds of inflammation causing substance which come in contact with skin are, irritant and allergic contact.

Irritant inflammation is due to non-allergic reaction of the skin. It can result from exposure to an irritating substance.

Allergic inflammation is due to allergic reaction of the skin. It is the allergic sensitization to various substances.

Repeated or prolonged contact to chemicals, wet cement or oil can develop irritant, in people who work in such atmosphere. Some products are safe and do not cause allergies but improper use can cause significant contact inflammation. And with case of diabetics it’s dangerous.

First and second degree burn can cause skin damage and it’s caused by even hot water. To decrease effect of such burn put your feet in solution as bleach, vinegar, salt water and Betadine to get benefits. But remember not to be used in excessive amount.

In case of allergic inflammation reaction occurs each time when person expose to such substance. Some people have allergic to shoes material some people are allergic to dyes of socks. In such case patient have to be very careful as even adhesive tapes can cause allergic reaction with blisters or even rash development. And even it can result in athletes foot infection.

Cause :

  • Hot water
  • Allergic contact (substance that sensitize skin)
  • Chemical contact

Treatment :

  • Wet cement
  • Cool compresses
  • Hydrocortisone creams
  • Anti-fungal creams

Foot Corns

Because of the bones push against the shoe and put pressure on the skin corns are formed on the toes. Hard corns are seen on the top of the toe or on side of small toe. Soft corns can result in open sores and form between toes due to rub against each other.

Symptoms :

  • Skin thickens and builds up
  • Irritating tissues
  • Hard corn on top of toe

Cause :

  • Improperly fitting shoes
  • Toe deformities (such as hammertoe or claw toe)

Treatment :

  • Corns shave (with scalpel)
  • Soaking your feet
  • Pumice stone or callus file (soften and reduce size of corn)
  • Donut-shaped foam pads (relieve pressure)

Burning Feet

Burning feet are very often seen among people over 50 and those who have diabetic.

Cause :

  • Thyroid dysfunction
  • Gastric restriction
  • In morbidly obese people
  • Heavy use of alcohol
  • Neuroma and tarsal tunnel syndrome (it causes pinched nerve)

Foot Calluses

Callus is generally seen across across the ball of the foot, on the heel, or on the outer side of the big toe. It’s an area of hard, thickened skin. Many think it as skin problem but in reality it’s a bone problem.

The main causes of callus are friction or pressure over long period of time, whether the pressure is small or more. If it’s a blister or open sore its due to more friction or pressure over short period of time and if it’s callus its due to less pressure or friction but long time. Callus is generally seen under metatarsal head which carry more share of over body weight.

A plantar callus comes in picture when one metatarsal bone is longer or lower than the others. And this bone hit ground first and with more force at every step. Due to which skin under this bone becomes like rock.

Callus under the ball of the foot is a condition called IPK (Intractable Plantar Keratosis). When Metatarsal head drops to a lower level then the other matatarsala from the bottom of the foot then IPK comes in form. It results in more pressure in this area and cause thick callus.

Symptoms :

  • Painful nerves and bursal sacs
  • Sharp, shooting pain to dull
  • Aching soreness
  • Skin thickness

Prevention :

  • Better shoes
  • Orthotic device.
  • Double thick toes and heel socks with nylon hose and cotton bottom sole.

Cause :

  • Repeated friction
  • Pressure
  • congenital abnormality
  • metatarsal fracture
  • structural change (over time)

Treatment :

  • Peel excess skin
  • Soaking feet in warm soapy water
  • Rubbing away dead skin that loosens
  • Pumice stone or emery board (file thickened skin)
  • Moisturizer (soft and relieve pain)
  • Corn pads or moleskin
  • Cortisone (rapid reduce pain and swelling)
  • osteotomy

Take assistance of foot care management to help you out in a smooth manner.


Athlete`s Foot (Tenia Pedis)

Athlete`s foot is also known as tenia pedis, is a common skin infection of the feet caused by fungus. It’s generally seen between toes. Feet are generally attacked by fungus as shoes create a warm, dark, and humid environment that gives birth to fungus.

Cause :

  • Warmth and dampness of areas (swimming pools, showers, and locker rooms)
  • Malfunctions of the sweat mechanism
  • Reaction to dyes
  • Adhesives in shoes
  • Eczema
  • Psoriasis

Symptoms :

  • Drying skin
  • Itching scaling
  • Inflammation
  • Blisters

Prevention :

  • Avoid walking barefoot.
  • Use shower shoes.
  • Reduce perspiration
  • Wear light and airy shoes.
  • Wear socks that keep your feet dry
  • Chang socks frequently if you perspire heavily.

Treatment :

  • Fungicidal
  • Fungistatic
  • Topical
  • Oral anti fungal drugs.

Foot Blisters

In foot blister Because of neuropathy or nerve damage, diabetes are unable to detect bun due to no pain.

Proper cares have to be taken to draining fluid but leaving their “skin” intact. Protect with a non-stick bandage with mild compression. Skin sprays and adhesive gel pads, as well as special socks, help minimize friction.

Cause :

  • Heat
  • Moisture
  • Friction
  • Fungal infections
  • Allergic reactions
  • Burns

Frostbite

Frostbite is exposure of skin to the cold temperature causes freezing of skin and other tissues. Area affected by frostbite is feet face and hand. Longer the exposure to cold worst will be the condition of frostbite. Frostbite is classified by degree of severity, from first degree to fourth. If first specify skin surface then fourth is bone, muscle and tendon.

Symptoms :

  • Skin color change
  • Feel numbness

Causes :

  • Cold
  • History of frostbite
  • diabetic

Treatment :

  • Ski boots
  • Exothermic
  • Keep feet dry and worm
  • Surgery

Cysts

Cysts are closed sac, It is cluster of cells grouped together to form sac. It may contain air, fluids, or semi-solid material. Sometimes a cyst may resolve on its own. When a cyst fails to resolve, it may need to be removed surgically, but that would depend upon what type of cyst it is and where in the body it has formed.

Common cysts of the feet are synovial cysts, ganglia and cutaneous mucoid cysts. Mostly cysts are located under skin but sometime it may found in tendor or bone.

The synovial or ganglionic cysts are connected to a nearby joint or tendon and are harder to treat.

Mucoid cysts are not connected to a joint, they are located near the nail, it may cause the nail to grow improperly.

Symptoms :

  • Mild pain (No pressure)
  • Sharp pain (Enclose or pressure on nerve)

Cause :

  • Repeated injury
  • Numbing area and extracting fluid (Ganglion crysts)
  • Injecting steroid or hardening agent (prevent from filling again)
  • Loose fitting comfortable shoes

Treatment :

  • Enucleation of the cyst
  • Curettage
  • Cure on their own

Foot Fungus

Athlete`s foot and fungal nails are the most common types of foot fungus.

Athlete`s foot is also known as Tenia Pedis, is a common skin infection of the feet caused by fungus. It’s generally seen between toes. Feet are generally attacked by fungus as shoes create a warm, dark, and humid environment that gives birth to fungus.

Cause :

  • Warmth and dampness of areas (swimming pools, showers, and locker rooms)
  • Malfunctions of the sweat mechanism
  • Reaction to dyes
  • Adhesives in shoes
  • Eczema
  • Psoriasis

Symptoms :

  • Drying skin
  • Itching scaling
  • Inflammation
  • Blisters

Prevention :

  • Avoid walking barefoot.
  • Use shower shoes.
  • Reduce perspiration
  • Wear light and airy shoes.
  • Wear socks that keep your feet dry
  • Chang socks frequently if you perspire heavily.

Treatment :

  • Fungicidal
  • Fungistatic
  • Topical
  • Oral antifungal drugs.

Black Toenail

Black toenail is nothing but turning of toenails dark. In general cases athletes encounter such problems as darkened nails often occur due to toe hitting the end or top of shoe area. The dark black nail is bruised nail which sometimes turns to fungal nail infection. The pressure which cause black toenail can sometime also cause small sore under toenail which later become infected.

Also referred to as onychomycosis, It is also termed as Onychomycosis, such infection are underneath the surface of the nail, which may penetrate nail. It doesn’t give pain but it gives additional bacterial or yeast in nail.

A group of fungi called dermophyteseasily attack the nail protein substance. When it take hold nail start to change as becoming thicker, yellowish-brown or darker in color, and foul smelling. It starts from one toenail and keep on spreading to other toenail if left untreated. It can even spread to skin or may be finger nails.

If a patient is having nail bed injury they are more susceptible to all types of infection, including fungal infection. And if a patient is diabetes or immune deficiency they are in prone to fungal nails. Those who suffer from diseases, such as diabetes, circulatory problems, or immune-deficiency conditions, are especially prone to fungal nails. Other contributors are athlete`s foot and excessive perspiration.

Prevention :

  • Proper hygiene and regularly inspect feet and toes.
  • Feet clean and dry.
  • Wear shower shoes.
  • Clip your nails straight.
  • Use a quality foot powder – talcum, not cornstarch – in conjunction with shoes that fit well and are made of materials that breathe.
  • Avoid wearing excessively tight hosiery
  • Disinfect home pedicure tools.
  • Don`t apply polish to nails suspected of infection.

Treatment :

  • Liquid anti fungal
  • Topical or oral medication
  • Removal of diseased nail matter and debris (debridement)
  • Surgical (permanent nail removal)

Gangrene

Gangrene is caused by a critically insufficient blood supply. Bacterial infections of open sores or ulcers also can also lead to gangrene. This potentially life-threatening condition may occur after an injury or infection, or in people suffering from any chronic health problem affecting blood circulation.

The types of gangrene differ in symptoms, and include dry gangrene, wet gangrene, gas gangrene, internal gangrene, and necrotizing fasciitis.

Diabetics are most prone to foot gangrene because they typically have poor circulation or nerve damage, which can lead to loss of blood supply. Diabetic neuropathy, or nerve loss, affects the nerves of the feet and legs causing a diminished ability to perceive pain, excessive heat, cold, vibration, or excessive pressure.

Some flesh-eating bacteria called Hemolytic Streptococcus can cause intense local heat, redness, swelling, fever, and weakness. The infection can start with a small abrasion or injury.

This condition required immediate foot care management treatment or can result in amputation or death.

Cause :

  • Reduced blood supply
  • Diabetic
  • Long term smoking

Symptoms :

  • Onset of foot
  • Leg pain
  • Lower skin temperature
  • Skin color change
  • Intense local heat, redness, swelling, fever, and weakness ( in case of flesh eating bacteria infection called Hemolytic Streptococcus)

Treatment :

  • Surgically removed
  • Oxygen treatment
  • Intravenous antibiotics

Lesions

A deadly pigment lesion occurs on the foot and lower extremity is malignant melanoma.Keep eye on pigment that occurs suddenly or start to change its appearance. As most pigment are freckles and moles but this is one kind of deadly pigmented lesion.

Malignant melanoma may also form under the nails of the feet. The thumb and big toe are more commonly affected than the other nails. Often the adjacent skin to the nail is ulcerated.

Actinis keratosis is another cancer causing lesion which can occur on feet. It is found in sun exposed are of body most likely as foot. No foot they come frequently for plantar war.

Karposi’s sarcoma is another lesion that can occur on the sole of feet. It appears as purplish, reddish or bluish black appearance and is irregular in shape. They tend to spread and form large plaques or become nodular. The nodular lesions have a firm rubbery appearance. It is usually AIDS infection. But it can occur without an AIDS infection also, but it’s very rare without AIDS infection.

Treatment :

  • Freezing the lesions with liquid nitrogen
  • Sharp excision

Psoriasis

Psoriasis is a long-lasting autoimmune disease which is characterized by patches of abnormal skin. These skin patches are typically red, itchy, and scaly. They may vary in severity from small and localized to complete body coverage. It is most commonly found on nails, scalp, elbows, shins and feet. It is difficult to distinguish from athlete’s foot as nail appearance may confuse with fungal infection of the toenails. Psoriasis can also affect the joints of the feet and lower extremities, leading to painful arthritis.

Symptoms :

  • Small pustules or blisters (filled with clear or cloudy fluid)
  • Skin patches

Causes :

  • Genetic
  • Lifestyle (season and climate)
  • HIV

Treatment :

  • Anti-inflammatory medications
  • Steroids

Smelly Feet and Foot Odor

As compare with other areas feet and hand contain more sweating glands. Smelly feet will not only make us uncomfortable but also embarrass us. Interaction between perspiration and bacteria which thrive in shoes and socks generate order.

Inherited causes mainly affect men.

Cause :

  • Shoes wear
  • Sweating
  • Inherited (hyperhidrosis, or excessive sweating)
  • Stress
  • Medications
  • Fluid intake
  • Hormonal changes

Prevention :

  • Wear socks with closed shoes.
  • Avoid wearing nylon socks or plastic shoes.
  • Wear shoes made of leather, canvas, mesh or other materials that let your feet breathe.
  • Bathe your feet daily in lukewarm water, using a mild soap.
  • Dry your feet thoroughly.
  • Change your socks and shoes at least once a day.
  • Check your feet every day for any infection or fungus.
  • Don`t wear the same pair of shoes two days in a row
  • Give your shoes at least 24 hours to air out between wearing
  • If odor of shoes doesn`t go away, discard the shoes.
  • Dust your feet frequently with a non-medicated baby powder or foot powder.
  • Applying antibacterial ointment also may help.
  • Keep bacteria levels at minimum by good foot hygiene.
  • Wear thick, soft socks to help draw moisture away from the feet

Treatment :

  • Special ointments
  • Soaking your feet in strong black tea (30 minutes a day for a week)
  • Iontophoresis (reduce excessive sweating)
  • Hyperhidrosis (surgeon cutting nerve that controls sweating)

Swelling

Swelling of the feet, ankles and legs, also termed as edema. It is often caused by an abnormal build-up of fluids in ankle and leg tissues. Mostly in older age painless swelling of feet and ankle is common seen problem.

Area affected by swelling are mostly both legs and may include the calves or even the thighs. Due to gravity effect swelling is mostly noticeable in lower legs.

When squeezed, the fluid will move out of the affected area and may leave a deep impression for a few moments.

Causes :

  • Blood pressure-lowering drugs
  • Body fluid overload
  • Burns
  • Certain antidepressants
  • Congestive heart failure
  • Diagnostic tests
  • Environment
  • Estrogens and progestin oral contraceptives
  • Extremity surgery
  • Generalized allergy
  • Glomerulonephritis or other kinds of kidney disorders
  • Infiltration of an intravenous site
  • Injury or trauma to the ankle or foot
  • Insect bite or sting
  • Long airplane flights or automobile rides
  • Long-term corticosteroid therapy
  • Medical treatments
  • Medications
  • Menstrual periods (for some women)
  • Pregnancy (mild to severe swelling)
  • Prolonged standing
  • Starvation or malnutrition
  • Sunburn
  • Testosterone
  • Venogram
  • Venous insufficiency (varicose veins).

Treatment :

  • Elevating your legs above the heart while lying down
  • Avoid sitting or standing without moving for prolonged periods of time
  • Avoid putting anything directly under the knees when lying down
  • Exercising the legs causes the fluid to work back into the veins and lymphatic channels so that the swelling goes down.
  • The pressure applied by elastic bandages or support stockings can help reduce ankle swelling
  • A low-salt diet may help reduce fluid retention and decrease the ankle swelling.

Ulcers

Ulcers are skin wounds that are slow to heal and are classified in four stages, according to which layers of skin are broken through.

Those stages and their characteristics are :

  1. Reddening over bony areas. The redness on the skin does not go away when pressure is relieved.
  2. Blisters, peeling or cracked skin. There is a partial thickness skin loss involving the top two layers of the skin.
  3. Broken skin and sometimes bloody drainage. There is a full thickness skin loss involving subcutaneous tissue
  4. Breaks in the skin involving skin, muscle, tendon and bone and are often associated with a bone infection called osteomyelitis.

Causes :

  • Neuropathic (loss of sensation in feet)
  • Arterial (due to poor blood flow to the lower extremity)
  • Venous (due to compromised veins)
  • Decubitus (due to excessive prolonged pressure on one area of the foot.)

Treatment :

  • Contract casts (relieve the bony prominent areas of pressure)

Warts

Mostly foot warts are harmless but they may be painful. A wart is a viral infection. It is layer of dead skin that builds up to protect an area which is being continuously irritated.

Sometime malignant lesions are mistaken as wart. Children especially teenagers are more susceptible to warts as compare to adults. Some people have immune capacity against warts.

Plantar warts are one of soft tissue condition that can be quite painful. Plantar warts are caused by virus, which generally give skin small or invisible cuts and abrasions. It can appear anywhere on skin, but in technical terms those on sole of foot are called plantar warts. Plantar warts are hard and flat with round surface. When seen on top of the foot or on the toes they appear as raised and fleshier. Its look gray or brown in color, with center having pinpoints of black. Warts can reoccur after treatment.

If warts left untreated in can grow to an inch or more and can form cluster of warts. Warts are spread by touching, scratching, or contact with skin from another wart. Warts can also bleed, this can also be one of mode of spreading. It’s get cured very fast as fast as they can recur in the same location.

Plantar warts form in weight bearing areas of foot as ball of the foot, heel

Cause :

  • Walking barefoot on dirty surfaces
  • Plantar warts virus
  • Moist environments
  • Infection caused in public bathing

Symptoms :

  • Sharp
  • Burning pain
  • Intense pain (If getting pressure on the side of wart)

Precaution :

  • Avoid direct contact with warts – from other persons or from other parts of the body.
  • Avoid walking barefoot, except on sandy beaches.
  • Change your shoes and socks daily.
  • Check your children`s feet periodically.
  • Keep your feet clean and dry.

Treatment :

  • Over-the-counter
  • Medication
  • Laser cautery
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